Cervical cancer


The initial stages of cervical (cervix) and uterine usually do not cause any health problems. With the gradual development of the disease, however, several problems occur.

– Bleeding outside of menstruation, heavy menstrual bleeding, painful intercourse, watery and smelly discharge. In the advanced stage also the lower abdomen and pelvic pain are added.

Uterine – Irregular bleeding, pelvic, back and leg pain. Emptying and urinary diss. In the late period of weight loss, the escalation of pain and fatigue.


is the most common , mainly affects women between 45 to 55 years of age. Recently, the occurrence of the disease is correlated to genital disease is known as condylomata acuminata (condylomas, wart growths caused by papillomavirus HPV). Additional risk aspect of sexual behaviour that increase the likelihood of developing the disease include sexual intercourse before 18 year of age, alternating partners and more than 5 pregnancies.

Danger are also represented by Harpes genital infections, HIV, drug use that suppress the immune system, smoking, vitamin C, folic acid and beta-carotene.

Uterine is one of the most common tumours of the female genitals. Usually occurs after the 50th year of life. The risk of developing the disease is increased by obesity, late menopause (after 52), not underwent pregnancy, estrogen or tamoxifen therapy (estrogen blocker used in the prevention and treatment of breast ).


begins by the overgrowth of abnormal cells in the mucosa (dysplasia). A condition in which the cells grow beyond the part of the cervix or the entire cervix is called carcinoma in situ. Then the tumour starts to spread into deeper layers. The early stage does not cause any pain or other difficulties. Pain and bleeding occur when has spread into vagina, pelvis, bones, intestine, bladder and lymphatic circulation.

of the uterus begins by an excessive growth of normal cells (hyperplasia) of endometria, or mucous membrane, which forms the padding of the uterus. develops by the transformation of these cells into tumour, most often in the endometrial glands. Estrogens support tumour’s growth by stimulating the endometrium. Before menopause the grow of the uterine lining is a normal part of the menstrual cycle – in the estrogen phase of the cycle, the uterus is preparing itself to adopt an egg. If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone levels will increase, which interrupt the growth, uterine lining is peeled and the menstrual flow washes it away.

Untreated uterine usually spreads down towards the cervix and vagina. Then through the wall of the uterus into the surrounding organs, fallopian tubes, ovaries, rectum and bladder. Bearings may also affect the liver, lungs, bones and brain. They appear pelvic pain, lower back and legs. A rare form of that is based on the muscle of the uterus is called uterine sarcoma. Endometrial stromal sarcoma arises from the cells surrounding the glands of the uterus.


Early stage of cervical and uterus are well treatable, so the most important point to prevent the are regular checkups and early detection of disease. When bleeding irregularly, at pains during intercourse and after it or at other difficulties go to the doctor.

Surgery and other treatments are often painful, so ask your doctor for analgesics or ask about other options of pain management. Irradiation induces nausea, fatigue, diarrhea and other annoying problems. Nausea and other difficulties are eased by medication and regular relaxation.

Recovery after removal of the uterus takes about 6 weeks.

Do not lift any heavy things until the wound is completely healed. Pain of the surgical scars can be eased by ice pack. Sexual intercourse is possible only after consulting a doctor. Intercourse is often painful, especially if the cervix was shortened at the surgery; in addition, after the removal of the ovaries – the source of estrogen – the mucous membranes of the vagina becomes dry. Vaginal water-based lubricants and finding a suitable position can help.



The choice of therapy depends on the extent and location of the tumour. Carcinoma in situ in the cervix are always treated surgically. After performing a biopsy (sampling) the affected tissue is removed mechanically, electrically or by laser excision.

The initial stage of cervical is usually treated by excision – wedge excision of the tumour and surrounding tissue in a shape of the cone. After this procedure, women can get pregnant and have children. Advanced tumours usually require a hysterectomy – removal of the entire uterus and part of the vagina, fallopian tubes, ovaries and lymph nodes, which are being examined for the presence of tumour cells.

Endometrial hyperplasia in young women, who want to have children, this is usually solved by curettage. During this procedure, the cervix is stretched (dilated) and then the damaged endometrium is scraped by curette (spoon-shaped instrument). At the of the uterus a hysterectomy is performed and according to the extent of the tumour also other genital organs are removed.


In most women irradiation is followed after the surgery. Pelvic area is irradiated either from an external source, or small radioactive needles or sensors are inserted directly into the cervix. If the tumour is very large, it is irradiated before surgery, to reduce it. Advanced stages of invading through the wall of the pelvis, usually can not be operated on. Radiotherapy then becomes the basis of the treatment.


Chemotherapy is given if the has spread beyond the reproductive organs. Simultaneously with it drugs are taken that suppress unpleasant side effects (anti-vomiting medications) and non-steroidal analgetics, e.g. aspirin or paracetamol or codeine, morphine and other opioid drugs. Part of the treatment may be hormones, usually progesterone, which slows tumour‘s growth stimulated by estrogen and reduces the risk of recidivism.


Evocative cause of this disease is unknown, but most experts believe that safe sex greatly reduces the risk of cervical occurrence. Among basic preventative precautions include sexual intercourse after 18th year of life, limiting the number of sexual partners and condom use as protection against sexually transmitted diseases (condyloma, genital herpes).

To reduce the risk of uterine helps maintain optimal weight and limiting the intake of animal fats in the diet.

The estrogen hormone replacement therapy in menopause, progesterone is added, which reduces the risk of endometrial .

source primar.sme.sk