Prostate cancer


Early stage usually does not cause significant difficulties. With the progress of the disease the following problems are occurring:

  • Problematic start of urination, inability to empty oneself completely
  • Frequent urination, usually at night
  • Pain and burning during urination
  • Chronic pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs
  • Sometimes with blood in urine

is considered for the fourth most common malignant disease in men. Typically begins after the 50th year of life, and it represents 15 percent of all s.

Underlying condition is not known, but the influence of heredity, hormonal changes, infections, diet and environment is assumed.


There are two types of malignant prostate disease. The first tumour grows slowly and usually does not spread outside the gland. However, sometimes a change and more aggressive growth occur.

The second type is more dangerous and mostly when it is diagnosed by physician, it is already growing through the prostate. In the early period it does not have to cause any problems, but sometimes it causes the same problems as enlarged prostate, that is, frequency of urination increases, burning at urination appears, inability to empty the bladder completely and the sick one urinates with a weak stream. At examination there are hard nodes found in the enlarged prostate and elevated levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) appears in the blood.

If the has spread further from the prostate gland, the dull chronic back pain are associated, weight loss, fatigue, and otherwise unexplained anemia. has spread to nearby lymph nodes, to neighboring organs, especially the urinary bladder, testis, seminal vesicles, but also into the pelvis, spine, femurs and ribs.


Early diagnosis is half the battle, after 40 men should regularly undergo an examination, when a doctor examines by palpation through the rectum the shape and surface of the prostate. After 50, sometimes even earlier (if the prostate occurred in the family), the PSA testing is also included into the regime of preventive examinations.

treatment depends on the age, the type and extent of the disease. Some men with slowly increasing non-aggressive tumour type rather than an invasive procedure the careful regular monitoring is recommended. However, patients and their surroundings often lack confidence in such vigilant observation.

Part of the treatment are analgetics. Morphine and other strong opioids are used to relieve pain after surgery or when has spread into the spine and other bones. Pain management should be consulted with a physician or a specialist from the workplace aimed at treating pain.



When the prostate is suspected, which occurs during the examination through the rectum or due to an increase in PSA levels, these examinations follow:

  • Transrectal ultrasound examination – into the rectum an ultrasonic sensor is inputed
  • Imaging techniques – as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can detect even small tumours
  • Biopsy – sampling of tissue from the suspected place using a hollow needle. After confirmation of the finding, computed tomography detects that there is no spread to the nearby organs and scintigraphy examines whether the disease has not spread to the bone.


If the existence of malignant place is confirmed, which does not overgrow the edge of the prostate gland, in men under 65 a prostatectomy is performed, or the removal of the entire prostate. This process will cure 90% of all cases. Surgery under full anesthesia lasts 4-5 hours and 5-7 day stay in the hospital is expected. At more severe bleeding a blood transfusion is administered. At auto-transfusion a blood sample is taken from the patient several weeks before the surgery, which is returned to him during the surgery or after.

A few days after the surgery morphine and other opioids is administered. After being released, he goes on to the weaker preparations, for example, codeine and paracetamol. Sometimes, the patients go home with inserted urinary coil, but usually the function of the bladder is adjusted within one week.


Irradiation most frequently follows the surgery or is carried out as a separate treatment, according to tumour status and patient, especially in men, who can not undergo prostatectomy. Irradiation does not distinguish tumour from healthy tissue, therefore, it can damage the surrounding organs and nerves and cause incontinence and impotence.

Medicines and hormones

Medicines and hormones are administered for elderly and weak patients, who can not undergo surgery and radiation. A large percentage of affected ones positively responds to the male hormone testosterone. At other times female sex hormones are used, for example, estrogen. However, their use raises a number of adverse effects such as reduced potency, breast growth, or fluid retention. On the other hand, they can slow tumour growth and so prolong the life.

Surgical removal of the testicles stop the production of the testosterone. Chemotherapeutic agents block the multiplication of tumour cells. Treatment is determined by the type of and stage of spreading in the body.


Development of is being associated with a diet high in fat and alcohol, but the results have not yet been confirmed.

Reasonable consumption of alcohol, limiting animal fats and maintaining an optimal weight anyway benefit the overall good health, and thus, also for the prevention of prostate .